Relative of Ingeborg Brigitte Gastel
written by John D. Simons, Florida
November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805
A universal genius generally regarded as the greatest German dramatist, Friedrich Schiller dominates a period of German literary history as no one else before or since. Schiller revealed more vividly than any of his predecessors the power of drama and poetry to convey a philosophy; his works contain the strongest assertions of human freedom and dignity and the worth of the individual in all German literature. After his death he rapidly became part of the cultural environment: streets and schools were named after him, statues and monuments were raised to his memory, his birthday was declared a national holiday, and his major works became part of the educational curriculum.
To modern English-speaking people the mystique surrounding Schiller may have seem hard to fathom. Yet to study how German perceive Schiller is to study how they perceive themselves. He appeared at a time when German literature was dominated by the monumental achievements of England, France, and Italy; there was even serious debate abouth whether the German language was a fit vehicle for literary expression. Schiller furnished proof of Germany's high cultural achievement. His status was recognized even in his lifetime: on September 17, 1801 he attended a performance of his Die Jungfrau von Orleans (1802; translated as The Maid of Orleans, 1824) at Leipzig. After the first act the audience exploded in shouts of *Es lebe Schiller!* (Long live Schiller), accompanied by cheers and applause. After the curtail fell on the last act, he was treated to a standing ovation. When he appeared at the exit, the throng fell silent. Baring their heads, they parted so as to form a corridor for him to pass. Here and there a parent lifted up a child and pointed out the honored man. Schiller had become, and remains, an icon.
Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller was born in obscurity on November
10, 1759 in Marbach. His father, Johann Kaspar Schiller, was a captain
in the army of Karl Eugen, duke of Wuerttemberg. In 1749 he had married
Elisabeth Dorothea Kodweiss, the daughter of a Marbach innkeeper. Though
a captain's salary was not large, it provided the family with a modest
standard of living and a happy home environment for the future poet. In
later years Schiller looked back on his childhood as an idyllic time of
simplicity and serenity. In 1762 the family moved to Ludwigsburg. In 1763
Johann Kaspar was sent to Schwaebisch-Gmuend as recruiting officer; the
family followed in 1764. To save money they decided to live in the nearby
hamlet of Lorch on the Rems. In 1766 the captain was posted back to Ludwigsburg.
From 1767 to 1773 Schiller attended the local Latin school, where he received
instruction in religion, Latin, Greek, Hebrew and German.
Schiller's ambition in these early years was to become a clergyman. It was planned that he schould attend the monastery school at Blaubeuren und then complete his studies at the Tuebinger Stift (Tuebinger Seminary). These plans were abruptly terminated in 1773 when the duke, who was absolute dictator in all but name, forced the thirteen-year-old to enroll in his newly established military academy at Solitude, two miles west of Stuttgart. Founded in 1770 as the Militaerwaisenhaus (Military Orphanage), the school had been renamed the Militaer Pflanzschule (Military Cadet School) in 1771. As the duke's pedagogical designs beame more grandious, he moved the school to Stuttgart in 1775 and changed its name to the Herzogliche Militaerakademie (Ducal Military Academy). The institution was generally known as the *Karlsschule* (Karl's School).
Thus began for Schiller eight grueling years of rigid discipline and petty rules. Cadets were forbidden to leave the school, receive visitors, or write letters; their activities were organized and monitored around the clock. This experience left its mark on Schiller's personality and on his literary productions. His hostility toward and contempt for arbitrary political power and despotic rulers runs like a leitmotif throughout his works.
The Karlsschule offered several subjects in which students could specialize.
Schiller first choose law, then transferred to medicine when that subject
was added in 1775. Determined to make his school the envy of Germany, Karl
Eugen hired the best teachers he could find; consequently, Schiller received
an excellent education. In addition to courses in medicine and military
science, he received instruction in Greek, Latin, French, English, classical
mythology, theology, philosophy, history, literature, physics, chemistry,
botany, and mathematics. Since the Karlsschule aimed at producing officers
and gentlemen, students received instruction in dance, horsemanship, fencing,
and court etiquette. When Schiller graduated he would have the intellectual
training and social graces necessary for entry into polite society.
In 1779 Schiller completed his course work and submitted a dissertation, *Die Philosophie der Physiologie* (translated as *The Philosophy of Physiology,* 1978). The committee rejected it, primarly because he had had the temerity to dispute the teachings of some traditional authorities. Schiller was particularly incensed when told that he would have to spend another year at the school. In 1780 his second dissertation, Versuch ueber den Zusammenhang der Tierischen Natur des Menschen mit seiner geistigen (1780; translated as *An Essay on the Connection between the Animal and Spiritual Nature of Man,* 1978) was accepted, and he was allowed to graduate and take up his duties as a regimental surgeon in Stuttgart. Since the Karlsschule was not a university Schiller could not be granted the title M.D. with the license to practice medicine; instead he was something like a paramedic, a position of little pay and less prestige. Schiller realized that all he could look forward to was the distasteful life of servitude laid out for him by the duke.
Schiller was delivered from his misery by his first drama, Die Raeuber (1781; translated as The Robbers, 1792). Little is known about the genesis of the play other than that he had begun work on it when still a teenager. Once he was free of the academy he concentrated his energy and finished it in 1781. Unable to find a publisher, he borrowed the money and paid for the printing himself. Because of its many inflammatory passages, he decided to publish it anonymously outside the duchy. A vital, energetic, and troubling work, it soon caught the eye of Wolfgang Heribert von Dalberg, director of the Mannheim National Theater in the neighboring duchy of Hesse, who decided to bring it to the stage. Schiller left his post in Stuttgart without leave to attend the premiere on January 13, 1782. The play was a sensation. Much of its appeal resides in Schiller's choice of the archetypal theme of hostile brothers. The jealous and greedy Franz von Moor tricks his father, the ruling count, into disinheriting his elder brother, Karl, who is away at the university. He then imprisons his father and seizes the land and title for himself and tries to terrorize Karl's beloved, Amalia, into concubinage. Learning of his disheritance, Karl drops out of school and becomes the leader of a band of robbers. No ordinary hoodlum, he is consumed by a demonic craving for justice; he has the noble but misguided notion that he can right the wrongs of the world by taking the law into his own hands. But the frightening violence that attends each raid begins to plague his conscience. His final catastrophic effort to bring his brother to justice ends in Franz' suicide and the deaths of the count, Amalia, and Karl's closest friend. In the end Karl realizes that he has done more harm than good. His last act, turning himself in to the police, amounts to a cry from the heart for lost ideals.
The drama introduces two themes that were to occupy Schiller for the rest of his life. The first is that of the criminal hero, the man inspired by lofty goals who employs immoral methods to achieve them. The second is that of the idealistic reformer betrayed by institutionalized hypocrisy and greed; in his hero's fall Schiller consistently underscores the futility inherent in the pursuit of ideals. The play also reveals Schiller's innate grasp of what constitutes drama. As a piece of stagecraft Die Raeuber has it all: sibling rivalry, armed robberies, an evil tyrant, a captive maiden, raging battles, tender love, and the conflict between good and evil. The language and the characterization are shamelessly overblown, but they matched the epic proportions of the action and struck a responsive chord in the viewers. The play was one of the most astonishing hits in the annals of the German stage, and the critics were no less enthralled than the public. In short order, Die Raeuber was playing all over the country. Since the production broke all house records at the Mannheim National Theater, Dalberg promised to produce any other play Schiller might write.
During the following months Schiller made several clandestine trips
to Mannheim. The duke eventually learned of his secret life, jailed him
for two weeks, and ordered him to cease all literary activity. Unwilling
to sacrifice his talent to the duke's whim, on September 22, 1782 Schiller
deserted the army -a capital offense- and fled to Mannheim. He was somewhat
naive in expecting Dalberg's protection and assistance; frightened of the
duke's wrath, the director refused to have anything to do with the young
playwright until the matter was settled. The prospect of being kidnapped
and returned to face the duke's capricious brand of justice forced Schiller
into hiding under the alias Dr. Ritter at the Bauerbach estate of Frau
Henriette von Wolzogen in distant Thuringia from December 1782 until July
1783. There he finished his second drama, Die Verschwoerung des Fiesko
zu Genua (1783; translated as Fiesco: or, The Genoese Conspiracy,
1796). Based on Count Fiesco's revolt against Andrea Doria in 1547, the
play dramatizes the metamorphosis of an idealistic political reformer into
an egotist hungry for power. Suspecting his ulterior motives, one of his
co-conspirators, the arch-republican Verrina, pushes Fiesko from a gangway,
and he drowns. Die Verschwoerung des Fiesko zu Genua is not a particularly
deep or revealing examination of history, but it is a riveting drama. Nevertheless,
when it premiered in Bonn on July 20, 1783 it received a mixed reception.
The problem is that the hero is actually a villain involved in the ruthless
pursuit of self-interest, and as Aristotle pointed out in his Poetics,
if the hero is a villain it is not possible for the audience to experience
the primary ingredients of tragedy, pity, and fear. Though Die Verschwoerung
des Fiesko zu Genua is much better constructed than Die Raeuber
is, it lacks both the idealistic fervor and the engaging characterization
of Schillers first play.
By July 1783 it had become clear that Karl Eugen intended to ignore Schiller's desertion, and Dalberg decided that it was safe to hire Schiller as resident playwright to deliver three plays a year. Schiller assumed his new duties on September 1, and Die Verschowerung des Fiesko zu Genua was produced at the National Theater on January 11, 1784. The first play Schiller wrote for Dalberg was Kabale und Liebe (Intrigue and Love, 1784; translated as The Minister, 1797). The play deals with one of the most controversial issued of the day: class discrimination. Ferdinand von Walter is the son of President von Walter, the unscrupulous chief administrator of a duchy. Ferdinand loves Luise Miller, the daughter of a lowborn musician. To break up the affair, which he regards as a threat to his political ambitions, the president employs the services of a slick opportunist, Wurm. Together they launch a cabal to convince Ferdinand that Luise is promiscuous. Believing the lies, Ferdinand poisons Luise and himself; he realizes the truth just before he dies. Justice -of a kind- is when the president and Wurm turn upon and destroy each other.
The most prominent theme of the play is the conflict between the decadent moral system of the aristocracy and the new morality emerging from the Enlightenment. Representative of the former is the president and his group, who treat the lower classes with contempt. They feel no obligation to respect laws, tradition, or even common decency in their pursuit of power and privilege. Luise, by contrast, represents traditional morality. She stands for custom, traditional values, honesty, and respect for the rights of others. Although the play ends with her death, the morality she represents triumphs.
The drama also displays another of Schiller's favorite themes, that of the hero who wears a mark of idealism to conceal motives of personal gain. Full of revolutionary enthusiasm, Ferdinand professes noble principles in defying his father, but the real reason is his passion for Luise. Furthermore, his idealism is selectively applied: he knows that his father gained power through mendacity and murder, but he feels no impulse to denounce him; nor does he object when his father's influence gets him the rank of major.
Schiller's year as official playwrigt was anything but serene; he quarreled with the actors and became involved in several intrigues. Dalberg was highly displeased with the failure of Die Verschwoerung des Fiesko zu Genua and the poor attendance at Kabale und Liebe. When Schiller failed to deliver the third play he had promised, Dalberg refused to renew the contract, which expired in August 1784. Schiller found himself in serious financial trouble. He had borrowed heavily, and his creditors were pressing for payment. To support himself he decided to launch a literary journal, Die rheinische Thalia, later renamed Thalia. He hoped that it would bring him a thousand talers a year. The journal did not sell well, however, and he fell even further into debt. To complicate matters he had fallen deeply in love with Charlotte von Kalb, the wife of major Heinrich von Kalb. This affair, Benno von Wiese thinks, prompted Schiller more than anything else to leave Mannheim.
Help arrived from an unexpected source. Christian Gottfried Koerner,
a wealthy official in the Kingdom of Saxony, and some of his friends wrote
Schiller expressing their admiration, offering support, and extending an
invitation to live with them at Leipzig. Schiller accepted. He wrote that
his requirements were modest: a room to receive visitors, a place to work
and sleep, and above all, companionship. Although he needed solitude for
composition, he was gregarious by nature. He often said that he would rather
not eat at all if he had to dine alone. His lifelong work habits began
to emerge abouth this time. To avoid interruptions and still fulfill his
duties as houseguest he decided to write at night, sustaining himself with
large quantities of coffee. He worked usually until four o'clock in the
morning and slept until eleven.
Schiller lived with the Koerners from April 1785 until July 1787. His gratitude for their generosity and warm hospitality is reflected in An die Freude (To Joy, 1786). His best-known poem of this period, it is a paean to friendship, universal brotherhood, peace on earth, and good will to men; its appeal resides in its youthful vigor and its image of an ideal world based on love. Ludwig van Beethoven immortalized the poem when he set it to music in the final movement of his Ninth Symphony. Besides other poetry of some merit, the chief product of this period was the drama Dom Carlos, Infant von Spanien (1787; translated as Don Carlos, Infant of Spain, 1798; in later German editions the spelling of the title character's name was changed to Don Carlos). The action is based loosely on the short life and mysterious death in 1568 of Don Carlos, son of Philip II and heir to the Spanish throne. Virtually everything is invented, including the central character, the Marquis Posa, an idealistic young man of uncommon abilities who tries to overthrow Philip II and place his intimated friend, Don Carlos, on the throne. Posa and Carlos plan to inaugurate a new order based on idealistic principles of freedom and dignity. These are noble goals, but Posa's devious means lead him ever deeper into a web of deception, secrecy, and betrayal involving not only Don Carlos but the queen -Carlo's stepmother, to whom Carlos was once engaged and whom he still loves- as well. Eventually, through a series of miscalculations, Posa loses control of events, and the king has him shot as a traitor. In the final scenes Philip turns his son over to the Inquisition.
This drama, with its ideal of freedom, its vision of a better future,
and its merciless attack on political absolutism, earned a special place
with the public, particularly the younger generation. For over a century
Posa was hailed as the paragon of noble virtues, the perfect example of
*the lionhearted German youth,* as one early critic put it. This one-sided
view has been considerably modified as critics have realized that Schiller's
hero has serious flaws. Posa, like Fiesko and Ferdinand before him, uses
idealism to conceal motives of self-aggrandizement. Although his dedication
to the idea of freedom is genuine, he is also driven by the desire to go
down in history as a great man. He pursues both aims in cold blood: he
lies to andgstrWINSYSDESTSYSFILE manipulates Carlos shamelessly, he maneuvers
the queen into putting her life in danger, and he betrays the king in the
most heartless way. In the final analysis, he tramples underfoot the very
ideals he professes to uphold. Thus, the drama does not end on a note of
moral triumph, for Schiller wanted to show how fanatical idealism is defeated
by its own extreme. The drama premiered on August 29, 1787 in Hamburg;
it was a success, and soon it was playing throughout the country. King
Friedrich Wilhelm II attended a performance in Berlin and was deeply moved,
especially by the scenes in which Philip's trust in Posa is betrayed. Despite
the popular acclaim, the drama is seriously flawed technically. Directors
had to edit it extensively, for it is constructed more like a thrilling
novel than high tragedy.
Schiller was well aware that he needed both to perfect his craft and to think through certain fundamental philosophical principles; also, although the Koerners were providing for his material needs, he wanted to regain his independence. On July 20, 1787 he moved to Weimar, which had the largest concentration of intellectual talent in Germany, and took up the study of history; he wrote no more plays and little poetry for the next ten years. It was widely held that there is a suprapersonal force at work within the phenomenal world directing the course of civilization; many, including Schiller, thought that this force could be grasped through the study of history. His study of the revolt of the Netherlands from Spain (1788; translated, 1844) attracted favorable attention and in January 1789 resulted in his appointment as an unsalaried professor of history at the university in nearby Jena. Schiller married Charlotte von Lengefeld on February 22, 1790. They had four children: Emilie, Ernst, Karl, and Karoline. Since the professorship carried no stipend, Schiller was forced to earn his living by writing popular histories, translating, and editing. One of his better known literary products of this period is the unfinished novel Der Geisterseher (1788; translated as The Ghost-seer; or, The Apparitionist, 1795). It is his only effort in the colportage genre. With it he sought to capitalize on the contemporary fascination with the supernatural and the mysterious which was being promoted by such famous charlatans as Alessandro Cagliostro and Franz Mesmer. A German prince in Venice falls victim to the deceptions of a secret society which drives him to Catholicism and in the end is supposed to incite him to a crime disrupting the order of succession to the Austrian throne. Schiller himself had a low opinion of the project and before completing it decided his energy could be better employed elsewhere. The twentieth century judges the work more favorably than Schiller did: the language seems almost contemporary, and the novel is a masterpiece of suspense, adventure, and description.
Schiller's academic career came to an abrupt end in January 1791 when overwork and earlier privations brought on a pulmonary disorder, probably pneumonia, which was later complicated by pleurisy. He lay near death for weeks, and in summer he traveled to the spas of Carlsbad and Erfurt. He never fully recovered his health, and for the rest of his life he suffered a succession of illnesses, including whooping cough. Schiller was taller than six feet, with reddish-brown hair and blue eyes; before 1791 he had been robust and vigorous, but after the illness he became thin and bony with hollow cheeks and watery, bloodshot eyes. He suffered almost constantly from abdominal cramps, dyspnea, and insomnia. For months at a time he would not leave his house. Aside from trips to Wuerttemberg from June 1793 to May 1794, to Leipzig in 1801, and to Berlin in May 1804, he never again left the vicinity of Weimar.
Although Schiller's body was wasted by disease, his mind and personality remained unaffected. In addition to his intellectual brilliance, the one trait virtually every visitor remarked upon was his enormous personal magnetism. He seems to have cast a spell over people, and the most independent-minded soon found themselves drawn into his orbit. The diplomat and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt, who later founded the Humboldt University at Berlin, moved to Jena for the sole purpose of being near Schiller. Schiller, however, never seemed to be fully aware of his effect on people.
The severity of Schiller's illness had caused false reports of his death to circulate, and the loss of so great a talent was acutely felt by his admirers at the Danish court. When he learned that the rumor was false, Prince Christian Friedrich von Augustenburg of Denmark conferred upon Schiller a stipend of a thousand talers a year for three years, beginnning in December 1791, so that he could convalescence properly. Freed from financial worries, Schiller took up the study of aesthetics and Kantinian philosophy. This period marked the great intellectual and literary turning point of his life. He produced a series of analytical essays on tragedy, the sublime, spiritual rebirth, and grace and dignity, with his career culminating in two key essays on the role and nature of the fine arts: *Ueber die aesthetische Erziehung des Menschen in einer Reihe von Briefen* (On the Aesthetic Education of Man in a Series of Letters, 1795) and *Ueber naive und sentimentalische Dichtung* (On Naive and Sentimental Poetry, 1795-1796). Both essays were published in three parts in Die Horen, a monthly journal Schiller founded in 1795.
*Ueber die aesthetische Erziehung des Menschen in einer Reihe von Briefen* is a program for the imporovement of man, society, and the state. Civilizations progress trough three distinct stages, Schiller says: the natural state, the aesthetic state and the moral state. In the natural state individuals are ruled by their emotions and compelled by their physical needs. Since such people cannot be trusted to obey the law of their own free will, the state maintains order by rute force or the threat of it. Contemporary European society is near the end of the natural state but finds itself unable to take the next crucial step. An unsuccessful attempt to do so was underway in France: the French Revolution had begun with great promise but had turned into a bloodbath. The events in France proved that the average citizen was unable to cope with the freedom and the sophisticated moral principles promulgated by the reformers. Since political institutions emanate from the character of the citizenry, it follows that if society is to be changed for the better the citizen must be changed first.
To change the character of the modern individual it is necessary to harmonize the forces operating within the human psyche. In our daily activities we are compelled on the one hand by the impulses emanating from our animal side, which Schiller calls the Stofftrieb (sense-drive). The Stofftrieb includes sense perception, the emotions, and the apetites. The other force, which arises from the rational faculty, he calls the Formtrieb (form-drive). It is the source of such abstractions as duty, law, justice, and moral principles. At present these two drives are in conflict, pulling the individual in opposite directions, with the sense-drive usually dominant. This inner disharmony is the primary cause of individual and social misery and misfortune. For further progress to occur, the two drives must work in concert. Both must be developed equally so that neither infringes on the territory of the other. This harmonization can be achieved by cultivating the Spieltrieb (drive to play). Play involves both drives and satisfies the demands of each simultaneously. Schiller defines play as whatever is done for its own sake; it is an end in itself, devoid of any ulterior motive. We sing, dance, play games, or listen to music purely for the pleasure involved, and that pleasure is the sensation of harmony. The delight in play derives precisely from its nonutilitarian character: if something could be gained by it, our pleasure in it would cease, and play would become work. Work is goal-oriented, play is process-oriented. Play and work are equivalent to freedom and servitude, respectively.
Schiller draws a close parallel between play and beauty: both are compounded of the sense-drive and the form-drive, both are disinterested, and both exert the same synthesizing effect on the psyche. The aesthetic state is the condition of harmony between reason and feeling; we are transported into this state of mind both through play and through the enjoyment and creation of beauty. He coins the term, *aesthetische Freiheit* (aesthetic freedom) to signify our liberation from the one-sided compulsion of either drive. Schiller's innovation is in tying art and beauty to our mimetic faculty. Since human beings learn through imagination, imitate what they see, and so become what they imitate, he proposes the aesthetic education of man as the way to equalize the discordant element of the psyche. When sense and reason compel us equally, the moral state is possible. Schiller defines this state as any political body whose organization derives from laws and principles. In such a state we obey the law of our own free will. Projecting this scheme into the future, he says that once we approximate ideal harmony, we ourselves become the state; political organizations as we know them will no longer exist. Public pressure will be the only force needed to insure conformity to the ideal.
In *Ueber naive und sentimentalische Dichtung* Schiller examines the problems raised in the essay on aesthetic education from a diffferent angle. His purpose is to elucidate two fundamentally different modes of perceiving the world and the two types of poetry which spring from these modes. Children exemplify the naive mode of perception: they are characterized above all by their straightforwardness and lack of guile. There is no difference between what they are and what they seem to be. Furthermore, they make no distinction between the world as it is and as it appears to be. They exist in a state of oneness with nature and with themselves. This child-like unity also characterizes the ancient Greks: both in their moral behavior and in their poetry there is a ertain unreflective spontaneity, almost as if nature herself were whispering directions. The naive orientation to life and poetry recurs from time to time in the modern age, notably in Shakespeare and Goethe. Modern civilization is largely to blame for our separation from nature and the accompanying destruction of our inner unity. When, as children, we are forced to obey rules and social conventions which are contrary to nature, we find that the promptings of the heart are at odds with the dictates of duty. As a consequence we become *sentimentalisch* (sentimental), a word which Schiller uses in its older connotation of intellectual, rational activity: with nature no longer available to guide us, we must reflect on our actions. The sentimental poet's alienation is reflected in his poetry; every word is the result of calculation and choice. The metaphors and symbols are carefully woven into the poem according to a preconceived plan to achieve a calculated effect. Until the sentimental poet overcomes his alienation, he will be able to write in only two modes: the satirical and the elegiac. The Poet writes in the first mode if he is either angered or amused by the discrepancy between the ideal and its translation into reality; his language is flavored with sarcasm, ridicule, or irony. The elegiac mode, by contrast, expresses sadness at something lost or unattainable; the language here is colored with nostalgia and lament. Once human being have harmonized the discordant elements of the psyche and the ideal has become reality, the poet's language will be filled with praise and exclamations of satisfaction. These are the characteristics of the sentimental idyll, the art form of the Golden Age. Believing in the perfectibility of man, Schiller is convinced that we can attain the ideal -not by returning to a state of nature as advocated by some contemporaries- but by going forward. He assigns to the poets of the world the task of showing the way.
Schiller's essay can be read as an analysis of himself and Goethe. Though the two poets had been introduced in 1788, they remained cool to each other for several years because of the great difference in their temperaments. Schiller's mind was bent toward the abstract, the theoretical, and the ideal, whereas Goethe was this -worldly, practical, and realistic-naive in Schiller's sense of the word. Writing, for Schiller, was hard work, involving careful planning and self-discipline; he bitterly resented Goethe's presumably spontaneous and effortless composition. For his part, Goethe was well aware that he had been born with an anormous natural talent and was himself somewhat mystified by its independent nature. In his twenties he had disovered that he was unable to compose by conscious effort: verse came to him automatically at irregular intervals. Goethe was at first cool to Schiller because the ten-year-younger Schiller reminded him of his own Sturm und Drang youth and outlook on life. In his essay Schiller identifies the difficulty he had in relating to the naive poets as his habit of separating the author from his work: one of his greatest insights was the realization that in naive poetry it is not possible to make this separation. The two are a unity. Once Schiller grasped the fundamental difference between himself and Goethe, the way to friendship was cleared. From July 1794 until Schiller's death each served as an inspiration to the other. The completion of Goethe's Faust, Part I (1808), for instance, was due largely to Schiller's prodding. The chief product of their relationship is a correspondence of about one thousand letters which deal primarily with literary matters. In 1796 they collaborated on *Xenien* (Xenia), a series of satirical distichs in which they put to scorching ridicule a host of literary philistines and pretentious, self-appointed critics. *Xenien* was published in Schiller's journal, the Musen-Almanach fuer das Jahr 1797.
By 1795 Schiller had developed the firm theoretical foundation he had sought, and he felt ready to take up poetry again. The contrast between the new verse and his earlier efforts is most striking. His development as a poet is usually divided into three periods. The productions of his early youth display all the faults of someone not yet in control of an immense talent. Typical is *Der Eroberer* (The Conqueror), first published in the Schwaebisches Magazin in 1777. Grandiloquent, emotionally excessive, and often bizarre, it is a moral condemnation of excessive ambition. Other pieces addressed to the fictitious *Laura* are written in the same superheated fashion and take the same delight in rhetorical embellishment. Above all, they are testimony to the youth's awakening libido. The second period covers the years 1785 to 1789. Although Schiller still indulges his gift for thetoric, the language of the poems of this period is more refined and elevated, and the content inclines toward philosopical ideas. *Resignation,* published in Schiller's journal Thalia in February 1786, focuses on true and false virtue. A man dies and apears before the judgment seat. He tells the judge that he had renounced all earthly pleasure in favor of compensation in the Hereafter; now he wants to collect his reward. Much to his distress he discovers that he has been laboring under a misapprehension. The judge tells him that humans can choose between hope and enjoyment; whoever picks the one must not covet the other. His reward for abstinence consisted in the pleasure he derived from self-denial. The poem ends with the remark that whatever we pass up in this life is not going to be waiting for us in eternity. A good deed performed with an eye toward a reward is not virtue. Like play, virtue is something we do purely for the pleasure involved. Another poem representative of the middle period is *Die Goetter Griechenlands* (The Gods of Greece), published in Der Teutsche Merkur in March 1788. It celebrates the ancient Greek view of religion and life to the detriment of the Christian. Schiller argues in the poem that if we look upon ourselves as helpless, sinful worms in a chain of being spiraling up to the Almighty, that simply makes Him the first and noblest worm. *Die Kuenstler* (The Artists), published in Der Teutsche Merkur in March 1789, is the last poem of the second period and probably the most significant. Schiller had by this time abandoned the study of history because it did not reveal the force responsible for social evolution. In this poem he says that art is this force, and he traces the role of art in civilization from earliest epochs to the eighteenth century. He went on to develop this idea in his essay on aesthetic education. gstrWINSYSDESTSYSFILE
When Schiller resumed writing poetry in 1795 he was at the summit of his powers. His verse from this period has the ring of the selfconfident master. Most of the poems are Gedankenlyrik (philosophical poetry); each is structured around a philisophical principle. Schiller believed that the poet's task is not to entertain but to inform, instruct, and improve the reader. The grand style is his mode of expression; his subjects are the rise and fall of cilizations, the destiny of mankind, the human condition. A particularly prominent motif is that of transcending through art and beauty the workaday world that inhibits the full development of our potential; only in the realm of ideals, truth, and beauty can we escape the enslaving forces of reality. He expresses this idea in such poems as *Der Tanz* (The Dance), published in the Musen-Almanach fuer das Jahr 1796, and particularly in his most profound philosophical poem, *Das Ideal und das Leben* (The Ideal and Life), published in Die Horen in September 1795, in which he advises that one *fliehet aus dem engen, dumpfen Leben/In des Idealen Reich* (leave life's stupefying narrowness/For the realm of ideals).
Among Schiller's favorite subjects is the ascent of mankind from nomadism through the development of agriculture to the rise of cities. *Der Spaziergang* (The Walk), published in Die Horen in November 1795, focuses on the relation between nature and the development of civilization. In the beginning nature is our companion and protector. As we become more civilized, nature is made our servant. This is a positive development; trouble arises only when we try to dispense with nature altogether or when we act contrary to its laws. Without nature as its guiding principle, civilization loses its orientation and its roots. This kind of freedom is dangerous and can lead to social chaos. We must learn to live in harmony with nature.
In the Musen-Almanach fuer das Jahr 1798 (1798) Schiller published a collection of ballads which included *Der Ring des Polykrates* (The Ring of Polykrates), *Die Kraniche des Ibykus* (The Cranes of Ibycus), *Der Taucher* (The Diver), and *Der Handschuh* (The Glove). The plot of *Der Ring des Polykrates* comes from a story found in the third book of Herodotus. As tyrant of Samos in the sixth century B.C. Polykrates, through dishonest means, dominated the eastern Aegean and amassed great wealth. In the poem the visiting Egyptian king warns him that the gods shower good fortune on those they have marked for destruction. To win their favor he should sacrifice his most esteemed possession. Polykrates agrees and casts his fabulous ring into the sea. The next day, while dressing a fresh fish, the cook finds the ring and returns it. Convinced that Polykrates' days are numbered, the Egyptian king hastily leaves Samos. By ending the ballad here, insted of going on to relate how Polykrates was soon lured to the mainland and crucified by the governor of Sardis, Schiller creates a mood of foreboding and doom.
*Die Kraniche es Ibykus* also dramatizes an incident from antiquity. The Greek poet Ibykus sets out to participate in the poetry competitions at Corinth. His journey happens to coincide with the migration of the cranes, whom he addresses as his friends. On the highway two robbers attack and murder him. With his dying breath he calls on the cranes to avenge him. The murderers continue to Corinth, where they enjoy the festival. One day, while they are attending a tragedy, a large flock of cranes suddenly flies over the ampitheater, provoking one of the murderers to exclaim without thinking: *Sieh da, sieh da, Timotheus, / Die Kraniche des Ibykus* (Look, look Timotheus, / The cranes of Ibykus). The robbers are arrested and brought to justice.
*Der Taucher* und *Der Handschuh* illustrate Schiller's concept of play. In the letters on aesthetic education, play is defined as an activity done merely for the pleasure involved without any thought of gain. If reward becomes the motivating factor the purity of the act is destroyed. In *Der Taucher* the king and his court are assembled on the cliffs of Messina overlooking the whirlpool known as Charybdis. Being in a playful mood, the king throws a golden goblet into the maelstrom and announces that woever is intrepid enough to retrieve it can keep it as a symbol of prowess. When none of the knights volunteers, a young squire steps forward, disrobes, and dives. A few minutes later he emerges with the goblet. Thrilled by the exploit and curious to hear more about the abyss and the gliding shadows the youth has described, the king announces that if he will dive a second time, a fabulous ring and the kings' beautiful daughter will be the reward. Even though the youth knows the danger, he dives. He never returns. Schiller's message is that when we act solely in accordance with reward, we corrupt not only the act but also ourselves.
In a letter to Goethe Schiller referred to *Der Handschuh* as a sequel to *Der Taucher.* In this ballad the king and his court are seated around an arena containing a lion, tiger and two leopards. Lady Kunigunde tosses her glove among the beasts, turns to the knight Delorges, and tells him that he can prove his love for her by retrieving the glove. Delorges casually descends among the animals, picks up the glove, and returns amid shouts of praise and wonder. Lady Kunigunde greets him with an expression promising sweet reward. At that moment he throws the glove in her face with the words *Den Dank, Dame, begehr ich nicht* (Thanks, lady, I don't desire) and leaves her forever. As with the first dive in *Der Taucher,* Delorges performs his feat as an end in itself; when he realizes that Kunigunde thinks he risked his life for her reward, his reaction is the natural and spontaneous expression of utter contempt for someone who has entirely misjudged him.
These ballads in the Musen-Almanach fuer das Jahr 1798, and others which soon followed, are more responsible than any other factor for Schiller's popularity among the general public. Drawing his material from the widest range of literature, myth, philosophy, and history, he deals with ultimate questions about truth, beauty, and justice. After reading one of his ballads, one has the sensation of having undergone an elevating experience. The ballads are uneven in quality. Many are set in the Middle Ages, and he was not entirely successful in capturing the spirit of that time. He is at his best when he takes his material from classical antiquity, a subject which had fascinated him for years. *Die Kraniche des Ibykus,* generally regarded as his finest ballad, has the force of an Aechylean chorus.
In 1797 Schiller began to work on the trilogy Wallenstein (1800; translated, 1800,1830), which is often cited as the greatest German tragedy. Of all Schiller's hystorical plays, this one follows the actual events most closely. The play, which reflects his study of the Thiry Years War (published in 1791-1793), has a fearful, paranoid, doom-laden feeling. Schiller portrays a cold, cruel, and murderous world where power is the medium of exchange and lies, betrayal, and intrigue are the norm. Against the somber background looms the protagonist, Albrecht von Wallenstein, commander in chief of the Catholic army. An ambiguous figure, he is an austere, ambitious man driven to become central Europe's most powerful warlord and to found a new dynasty, even if these goals require him to rebel against Ferdinand, the Hapsburg emperor, and to plunge the entire continent into civil war. When the action begins he has already won the allegiance of the army and most of the officer corps away from Ferdinand.. Yet he hesitates to come out in the open revolt because he is not sure that the time is ripe. His irresolution does not spring from any inner struggle between right and wrong, for he is amoral. In this respect he stands in sharp contrast to Schiller's earlier creations, Karl Moor and the Marquis of Posa. Though they, too, rebel against established authority, they do so in the name of humanity. Wallenstein believes in nothing. He is motivated neither by guiding principle nor moral law. Believing that necessity rules the universe, he denies the possibility of free choice and claims that all human actions are predictable.
It is precisely Wallenstein's amoral and deterministic philosophy that leads him to make the mistakes which end in his downfall. His failure to give Ferdinand his full moral support arouses the emperor's suspicion.; his belief in the predictability of human behaviour causes him to misjudge the loyalty of his most trusted general, Octavio Piccolomini, as well as that of the army. By the time he realizes the magnitude of his errors it is too late. Deserted by the army and abandoned by his friends, he knows that there is not much point in fighting on; yet he perseveres with increasing energy and determination, thus evoking the audience's admiration, even though it knows that General Buttler and his assassins are on the move and that the duke is doomed. Ultimately, it is Wallenstein's self-assertion in the face of fortune which makes his death tragic. The play made a massive impression throughout Germany. Until then German literature could not boast of a drama of such magnitude, depth , sweep, and excellence. For the most part, the critics were overawed and contented themselves with trying to outdo one another in praising the work.
Following Wallenstein, Schiller chose another historical subject,
the three days preceding the execution of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots,
in 1587. The action of Maria Stuart (1801; translated as Mary
Stuart, 1801) begins when Maria learns that the royal commission appointed
by Elisabeth I has found her guilty of conspiring with others to assassinate
the English queen. While Elisabeth procrastinates in signing the order
of execution, Maria frantically tries to avert her fate. After Maria's
failure in act 3 to persuade Elisabeth to release her, Mortimer, her jailer's
nephew, heads a conspiracy to free her by force; he is driven by his passion
for Maria. Leicester informs on him, and Mortimer kills himself as he is
arrested. After an attempt by one of Mortimer's allies to assassinate her,
Elisabeth signs the order of execution. It is carried out the next day.
The historical events provide the background for a story about rage, crime, remorse, and spiritual rebirth. In the first four acts Maria is not a heroine with whom audiences are expected to sympathize. She is a petty, vain, and insulting woman consumed by hatred for Elisabeth. Because of the many crimes of her youth, especially her complicity in the murder of her husband, Lord Darnley, Maria's rage contains a quotient of self-condemnation; it is this remorse that eventually leads to her spiritual regeneration. One of Schiller's primary principles concerning the human condition, propounded in his theoretical writings on the sublime act, holds that a person who regrets a crime can regain peace of mind through voluntary self-punishment. The suffering brings about a change in character which amounts to a spiritual rebirth. For technical reasons, which he discusses in his theoretical writings, Schiller chose not to stage the moment of Maria's transformation but rather its effect on her character and bearing. To this end he uses the technique of contrast. First, he shows the unreconstructed Maria at her worst when she confronts Elisabeth in the third act. In this scene Maria loses her self-control and vents her pentup hatred in a stream of verbal abuse culminating in the unparalleled and unforgivable insult: *Der Thron von England ist durch einen Bastard / Entweiht* (The throne of England is by a bastard / Profaned). Her transformation begins that night, when she realizes that the general uproar in the castle is not caused by her rescuers but by the workmen who are preparing her place of execution. Following an inner struggle, which happens offstage, she overcomes the negative qualities which led her not only into her earlier crimes but also into her present predicament. She even perceives a way to turn her execution for treasons, of which she is innocent, into the means of her redemption; she chooses to regard her death as an atonement for her husband's murder. The effect of her inner transformation is seen through her serene speech and dignified bearing, which stand out in sharp contrast to the snarling shrew who called the queen of England a bastard. In the final scenes she projects an image of inner harmony and quiet tranquillity.
The first performance on June 14, 1800 at Weimar was a resounding success. After the play was issued in book form the following year, the literary critics spoke up. While praising the work's dramatic and linguistic qualities, they took its author to task for deviating from historical fact. They pointed out that the two queens had never met, that Elizabeth was not like Schiller's portrayal of her, that Mortimer never existed, and so on. Schiller shrugged off the criticism, for he had long since come to the conviction that art is not in the service of history. It is the dramatist's business to tell how things could or should have been, not how they were.
For the subject of his next play, Schiller turned to the Joan of Arc legend. Beneath the surface action of Die Jungfrau von Orleans, which follows the historical events fairly closely until the final act, there is a conflict between duty and inclination, spirit and flesh. In the prologue Schiller emphasizes the conditions of Johanna's mission, which she will later violate: she is to lead the French army against the English, liberate Rheims, and crown the dauphin King Charles VII, and she will be given divine power to accomplish the task; under no circumstances however, is she to entertain erotic thoughts but is to live by spirit alone. Johanna pursues her object relentlessly until, at the peak of fortune, she is suddenly paralyzed by a blind infatuation for a handsome young English officer, Lionel. Her divine powers vanish, and she is plunged into misery. Overcome with shame, guilt, and remorse she submits to her father's misguided accusations and to her unjust banishment from court for witchcraft as the means to atone for breaking her vow to God. After putting herself through more suffering and hardship, she emerges purified. With her charisma and powers restored she breaks out of the English prison and leads the French to victory. Schiller digresses considerably from history when he has her die of wounds received in battle.
The play premiered on September 11, 1801 at Leipzig and swept the audience off its feet; the reaction was repeated in succedding performances around the country. The critics, of course, were upset at his deviation from the facts, but hardly anyone paid any attention to them. Die Jungfrau von Orleans was Schiller's most popular play and remained in the permanent repertoires of almost all German theaters throughout the nineteenth century. The drama was largely responsible for overturning the prevailing notion -propounded in Voltaire's scurrilous La Pucelle (1755) -that Joan of Arc was a charismatic charlatan who whored her way through regiments to achieve dubious ends: such was the influence of this play that historians and the clergy reopened the case and got at the facts. That Joan of Arc was finally canonized in 1920 can be traced directly back to Schiller's drama.
Schiller's long fascination with classical antiquity inspired him to
write a tragedy in the style of the Athenian tragic poets. Die Braut
von Messina oder Die feindlichen Brueder (The Bride of Messina;
or, The Enemy Brothers, 1803: translated as The Bride of Messina,
1837) incorporates such features as the chorus, pity and fear, recognition-reversal,
tragic error, and catharsis. And, as in the ancient tragedies, within the
clasical structure unfolds a most unsavory tale of outrages against nature.
An old king, enraged at his son's eloping with the woman he desired for
himself, rapes her and then lays a curse on her progency. Prophecies and
dreams of doom foretell the birth of a daughter who will cause the dynasty's
destruction. Transgressing against nature, the new king orders the infant,
Beatrice, flung into the sea. Queen Isabella, however, spirits the child
away to a convent, where she matures into a ravishing beauty. Ignorant
of her true identy, her brothers Cesar and Manuel, who are divided by an
unnatural and morbid hatred, meet and fall in love with her. In a jealous
fury Cesar kills Manuel. The catastrophe is brought on not only by the
abnormal deeds of the individual characters but also by the unnatural presence
of the family in Messina. Several times the chorus complains that the ancestors
of the ruling family came from across the seas to conquer and then to divide
into warring camps a people who had lived in peaceful harmony with themselves
and with nature. The play is one of Schiller's strongest depictions of
what can happen when human beings violate the natural order. Structurally,
Braut von Messina is the most carefully composed of Schiller's dramas;
it is noted for its economy of form and its symmetry. Yet he was unable
tpo breathe life into it, and the play remains a passive experience. He
avoided the very things in which he excelled: portraying vividly drawn
characters in vigorous action and speaking virtuoso dialogue. Most critics
agree that it is an interesting experiment which failed. It premiered on
March 19, 1803 in Weimar and closed after a few performances.
After the cold, gray aloofness of Die Braut von Messina, Schiller wrote a hit noted for its color and warmth. Wilhelm Tell (1804; translated as William Tell, 1829) is his most widely known drama outside Germany. Few people have not heard the legend of how Gessler, the cruel Austrian governor of the Cantons Schwyz and Uri, places his hat atop a pole and commands the people to bow to it. Tell does not bow and as punishment must pierce with an arrow an apple on his son's head. Gessler arrests Tell by trickery, but Tell escapes from the prison ship and slays the tyrant. Parallel to Tell's adventure run two other independent plots. The first is known as the Ruetli Confederacy. During the night of 7-8 November 1307 representatives from three cantons meet at a clearing in the forest called the Ruetli to plan an armed revolt. They decide to strike after Christmas. The second plot involves the young Swiss nobleman Rudenz von Attinghausen, who has turned his back on his countrymen because he loves the beautiful Berta von Bruneck. When he learns that he can win her only through Swiss independence, he has a change of heart. The three independent plots come together in act 5: when the Ruetli Confederacy learns of Gessler's death, the leaders decide to launch the revolt immediately, and Rudenz joins them. Most of act 5 is devoted to the storming of the castles and the expulsion of the last Austrian governor. At this point Schiller added a scene which is extraneous to the action: Duke Johannes of Swabia, called Parricida in the play, has assassinated the Austrian emperor Ferdinand for withholding his inheritance. Pursued by soldiers, he seeks out Tell to beg for help because, as he explains, their deeds are similar. Tell stoutly denies any resemblance between them but gives assistance when he sees that Parricida is remorseful and wants to expiate his crime. This scene has often been criticized as gratuitous and out of harmony with the rest of the play, and it is almost always omitted when the play is performed. Yet Schiller felt compelled to justify Tell even more by contrasting his deed with Parricida's purely selfish, revengeful act.
The play dramatizes Schiller's thoughts on revolution (when it is justified,
and that force should be applied without bloodshed) and his theory of social
evolution. In his essay on aesthetic education he links civilization's
upward course to the development of the rational faculty. In the figure
of Wilhelm Tell he demonstrates how an individual, and by extension humanity,
might progress from a naive state of oneness with nature through the moral
state to the aestehtic state. In the first half of the play Tell displays
the qualities of a person living in a state of nature: he is a unity within
himself and lives at one with his environment. The basis of his morality
is feeling, not reasons. His actions are spontaneous and upremeditated,
as when he rescues Baumgarten from the pursuing soliders in act 1. His
naive simplicity is also apparent in is speech: a man of few words, he
usually confines himself to proverbs. Tell's oneness is destroyed when
Gessler orders him to risk his son's life, thereby forcing him to act contrary
to his nature and to nature itself. At this point Tell is driven from the
natual state into the moral state. In his essay *Ueber das Erhabene* (On
the Sublime), written in 1793 and published in volume 3 of his Kleinere
prosaische Schriften (Shorter Prose Writings, 1792-1802) in 1801, Schiller
says that such an event always happens suddenly and without warning. From
this point forward Tell is a different person. The change is at once apparent
in his manner of speech; it is no longer a series of set phrases, as can
be seen, for instance, in his vivid account of how he escaped from Gessler's
ship and in his conversation with Johannes Parricida in act 5. As he awaits
Gessler at the Hohle Gasse, Tell delivers a monologue in which he recalls
his former inner unity and oneness with nature, then reflects upon how
he has changed. He reasons that he must kill Gessler to protect not only
his own family but also the Swiss people. He does not shoot Gessler in
a blind fury as Cesar stabs his brother; rather, it is a premeditated act
performed in full awareness of its necesity. In Schiller's terminology,
Tell is forced to act sublimely; that is, he must overcome his natural
feeling of revulsion at taking a human life and act lolely according to
what reason tells him is required. Tell's reason has been brought fully
into play and can now operate in concert with his feelings. In the final
scenes Tell has achieved that highter synthesis of the sense-drive and
the form-drive that constitutes the aesthetic state.
For his next play Schiller turned to the life of Demetrius, the false czar. From the many fragments and notes he left behind it is possible to say that the work promised to be his crowning achievement; but he was unable to complete it. Early in 1805 his health began a rapid deterioration. On May 1 he contracted double pneumonia. Until his death on May 9 he drifted in and out of delirium. Among his last words, spoken in hallucination, were: *Ist das eure Himmel, ist das eure Hoelle?* (Is that your heaven, is that your hell?). Schiller was first buried in the St. Jakobskirche cemetry in Weimar. From there his remains were removed to the Weimar Princes' Mausoleum. His coffin lies next to Goethe's.
Schiller's influence has been profound and far-reaching. The psychologist Carl Gustav Jung, for example devotes two chapters of his Psychologische Typen (Psychological Types, 1921) to a discussion of *Ueber Naive und sentimentalische Dichtung* and stresses the importance of Schiller's typology of human nature to the development of his own theory. Friedrich Nietzsche's distinction between the Apollonian and the Dionysian can be traced directly to Schiller's essay. In aesthetics, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Phenomenologie des Geistes (Phenomenology of Spirit, 1807) was deeply indebted to Schiller on the crucial point of the dialectical reconviliation of opposites and the dynamic concept of harmony, which Hegel formulates in his triad of thesis- antithesis-synthesis. Schiller's concept of art as aesthetic play has given rise to many play theories of art and education. In political theory Schiller's mot notable influence is found in the early writings of Karl Marx. Schiller's remarks about the negative effect of the division of labor on the human psyche led Marx to work out his whole-man theory, according to which the task of the state is to create conditions which will promote the harmonious coordination of all of each person's forces and faculties; the ultimate result, as in Schiller's program, will be the gradual disappearance of the state as a political organization.
Schiller's life and works continue to be studied and analyzed with an
intensity accorded those of few other writers. Essays and monographs number
in the thousands. The average German citizen regards the author as something
like a national monument. Schiller's legacy shows few signs of fading away.
Versuch ueber den Zusammenhang der thierischen Natur des Menschen mit seiner geistigen: Eine Abhandlung welche in hoechster Gegenwart Sr. Herzoglichen Durchlaucht, waehrend desn oeffentlichen akademischen Pruefungen vertheidigen wird Johann Christoph Friedrich Schiller, Kandidat der Medizin in der Herzoglichen Militair-Akademie (Stuttgart: Cotta, 1780); translated by Kenneth Dewhurst and Nigel Reeves as *An Essay on the Connection between the Animal and Spiritual Nature of Man,* in their Friedrich Schiller: Medicine, Phychology, and Literature (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), pp. 253-285;
Die Raeuber: Ein Schauspiel, anonymous (Frankfurt am Main & Lepzig: Privately printed,,, 1781); revised as Die Raeuber: Ein Trauerspiel. Neue fuer die Mannheimer Buehne verbesserte Auflage, as Schiller (Mannheim: Schwan, 1782); revised as Die Raeuber: Ein Schauspiel in fuenf Akten (Frankfurt am Main & Leipzig: Loeffler, 1782); translated by Alexander F. Tytler as The Robbers (London: Robinson, 1792; New York: Printed for S. Campbell, 1793);
Elegie auf den fruehzeitigen Tod Johann Christian Weckerlins: Von seinen Freunden, anonymous (Stuttgart: Maentler, 1781);
Der Venuswagen, anonymous (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1781);
Anthologie auf das Jahr 1782, anonymous (Tobolsko: Gedruckt in der Buchdruckerei, 1782);
Todenfeyer am Grabe des hochwohlgeborenen Herrn, HERRN Philipp Friderich von Rieger, Generalmajors und Chefs eines Infanterie-Bataillons, Kommandanten der Vestung Hohenasperg, und des herzoglich militairischen St. Karls Ordens Ritters, welcher im sechzigsten Jahr seines Alters am 15ten May zu Hohenasperg an einem Schlagflusse seelig verchied, und den 18ten des Molnats feierlich zur Erde bestattet wurde, Ihm zum Ehrendenkmal geweyht von saemmtlicher Herzoglich-Wirtembergischen Generalitaet, anonymous (Stuttgart: Erhard, 1782);
Die Verschowerung des Fiesko zu Genua: Ein republikanisches Trauerspiel (Mannheim: Schwan, 1783); translated by George Henry Noehden and Sir John Stoddart as Fiesco, or, The Genoese Conspiracy (London: Johnson, 1796);
Kabale und Liebe: Ein buergerliches Trauerspiel in fuenf Aufzuegen (Mannheim: Schwan, 1784); translated by Matthew Gregory Lewis as The Minister: A Tragedy in Five Acts (London: Bell, 1797); translation revised as The Harper's Daughter; or, Love and Ambition (Philadelphia: Carey, 1813);
Dom Karlos, Infant von Spanien (Leipzig: Goeschen, 1787); translated by Noehden and Stoddart as Don Carlos, Infant of Spain (London: Miller, 1798);
An die Freude: Ein Rundgesang fuer freye Maenner. Mit Musik (N.p..,, 1786);
Der Geisterseher: Eine interessante Geschichte aus den Papieren des Grafen von O*** herausgegeben aus Herrn Schillers Thalia (Berlin &Leipzig), 1788); republished as Der Geisterseher: Eine Geschichte aus den Memoires des Grafen von O** (Leipzig: Goeschen, 1789); translated by Daniel Boileau as The Ghost-seer, or, The Apparitionist (London: Vernor, 1795; New York: Printed for T.&J. Swords, 1796);
Geschichte des Abfalls der vereiigten Niederlande von der Spanischen Regierung: Erster Teil enthaltend die Geschichte der Rebellionen bis zur Utrechtischen Verbindung (Leipzig: Crusius, 1788); translated by Edward Backhouse Eastwick as History of the Defection of the United Nehterlands from the Spanish Empire (Frankfurt am Main: Krebs, 1844);
Was heisst und zu welchem Ende studiert man Universalgeschichte?: Eine akademische Antrittsrede bey Eroeffnung seiner Vorlesungen gehalten von Friedrich Schiller, Professor der Geschichte in Jena (Jena: Akademische Buchhandlung, 1789);
Historischer Calender fuer Damen fuer das Jahr 1791 (-1793): Geschichte des Dreissigjaehrigen Kriegs, 3 volumes (Leipzig: Goeschen, 1791-1793); translated by William Blaquiere as History of the Thirty Years' War, 2 volumes (London: Miller, 1799);
Kleinere prosaische Schriften von Schiller: Aus mehreren Zeitschriften vom Verfasser selbst gesammelt und verbessert, 4 volumes (Leipzig: Crusius, 1792-1802);
Ueber Anmuth und Wuerde: An Carl von Dalberg in Erfurth, anonymous (Leipzig: Goeschen, 1793);
Gedichte, 2 volumes (Leipzig: Crusius, 1800-1803);
Wallenstein: Ein dramatisches Gedicht, 2 volumes (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1800) -comprises in volume 1, Wallensteins Lager, translated by F.L. Gower as The Camp of Wallenstein (London: Murray, 1830); Die Piccolomini, translated by Samuel Taylor Coleridge as The Piccolomini; or, The First Part of Wallenstein, a Drama in Five Acts (London: Longman & Rees, 1800); as volume 2, Wallensteins Tod, translated by Coleridge as The Death of Wallenstein (London: Longman & Rees, 1800;
Maria Stuart: Ein Trauerspiel (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1801); translated by Joseph C. Mellish as Mary Stuart: A Tragedy (London: Printed by G. Auld, 1801);
Turandot, Prinzession von China: Ein tragicomisches Maehrchen nach Gozzi (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1802);
Kalendar auf das Jahr 1802: Die Jungfrau von Orleans. Eine romantische Tragoedie (Berlin: Unger, 1802); translated by Henry Salvin as The Maid of Oleans in his Mary Stuart and The Maid of Orleans (London: Longman, 1824);
Die Braut von Messina oder Die feindlichen Brueder: Ein Trauerspiel mit Choeren (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1803); translated by G. Irvine as The Bride of Messina (London: Macrone, 1837);
Wilhelm Tell: Ein Schauspiel. Zum Neujahrsgeschenk auf 1805 (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1804); translated anonymously as William Tell (London: Bull, 1829);
Die Huldigung der Kuenste: Ein lyrisches Spiel (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1805); translated by A.I. du Pont Coleman as *Homage to the Arts,* in The German Classics of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, volume 3, edited by Kuno Francke and William G. Howard (New York: German Publication Society, 1913), pp. 366-377;
Theater, 5 volumes (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1805-1807);
Friedrich v. Schillers saemmtliche Werke, 12 volumes, edited by Christian Gottfried Koenrer (Stuttgart & Tuebingen: Cotta, 1812-1815; revised, 1835);
Schiller's erste bis jetzt unbekannte Jugendschrift: Die Tugend in ihren Folgen betrachtet. Rede zur Feier des Geburtsfestes der Frau Reichsgraefin von Hohenheim auf gnaedigsten Befehl Seiner Herzoglichen Durchlaucht verfertigt vom Eleve Schiller (Amberg: Kloeber, 1839);
Nachlese zu Schillers Werken nebst Variantensammlung: Aus seinem Nachlass, 4 volumes, edited by Karl Hoffmeister (Stuttgart & Tuebingen: Cotta, 1840-1841);
Aventuren des neuen Telemachs oder Leben und Exsertionen Koerners des decenten, consequenten, piquanten u.s.f. von Hogarth in schoenen illuminierten Kupfern abgefasst und mit befriedigenden Erklaerungen versehen von Winkelmann: Rom, 1786, drawings by Schiller, texts by Ludwig Ferdinand Huber, edited by Carl Kuenzel (Leipzig: Payne, 1862);
Ich habe mich rasieren lassen: Ein dramatischer Scherz, edited by Kuenzel (Leipzig: Payne, 1862);
Schillers dramatische Entwuerfe zum erstenmal veroeffentlicht durch Schillers Tochter, edited by Emilie Freifrau von Gleichen-Russwurm (Stuttgart: Cotta, 1867);
Schillers saemmtliche Schriften : Historisch-kritische Ausgabe, 16 volumes, edited by Karl Goedeke and others (Stuttgart: Cotta, 1867-1876);
Schiller's Werke: Nach den vorzueglichen Quellen revidirte Ausgabe, 16 volumes (Berlin: Hempel, 1868-1874);
Aus dem Schiller-Archiv: Ungedrucktes und unbekanntes zu Schillers Leben und Schriften, edited by J. Minor (Weimar: Boehlau, 1890);
Deutsche Groesse: Ein unvollendetes Gedicht Schillers. 1801. Nachbildung der Handschrift im Auftrage des Vorstandes der Goethe-Gesellschaft, edited by Bernhard Suphan (Weimar, 1902);
Saemtliche Werke: Saekular-Ausgabe in sechzehn Baenden, 16 volumes, edited by E. Von der Hellen (Stuttgart: Cotta, 1904-1905);
Werke: Nationalausgabe. Im Auftrag des Goethe- und Schiller-Archivs, des Schiller- Nationalmuseums und der Deutschen Akademie, 35 volumes to date, edited by Julius Petersen and Gerhard Fricke (Weimar: Boehlau, 1943- );
Saemtliche Werke, 5 volumes, edited by Fricke, Herbert G. Goepfert, and Herbert Stubenrauch (Munich: Hanser, 1958-1960);
Editions in English:
Historical Works, 2 volumes, translated by George Moir (Edinburgh: Constable / London: Hurst, 1828);
Philosophical and Aesthetic Letters, translated by Joseph Weiss (London: Chapman, 1844);
Essays: The Aesthetic Letters, Essays, and the Philosophical Letters, translated by Weiss (Boston: Little, Brown, 1845);
Works, Historical and Dramatic, 4 volumes (London: Bohn, 1846-1849; New York: Harper, 1855);
Poems of Schiller, Complete, Including All His Early Suppressed Poems, translated by Edgar Alfred Bowring (London: Parker, 1851; revised edition, London: Bell, 1874, New York, Lovell, 1884);
Complete Works, 2 volumes, edited by Carl J. Hempel (Philadelphia: Kohler, 1861; revised, 1870);
Essays Aesthetical and Philosophical: Translated by Various Hands (London: Bell, 1875);
The Revolt of the United Netherlands, translated by Alexander James W. Morrison (London: Bell, 1889);
Works, 7 volumes (London: Bell, 1897-1903);
*The Sport of Destiny,* translated by Marian Klopfer, in Great German Short Novels and Stories, edited by Victor Lange (New York: Random House, 1952), pp. 100-109;
William Tell, translated by Sidney E. Kaplan (Woodbury, N.Y.: Barron's Educational Series, 1954);
Wallenstein: A Historical Drama in Three Parts, translated by Charles E. Passage (London: Owen, 1958; New York: Ungar, 1958, revised edition, New York: Ungar, 1960);
Mary Stuart: A Tragedy, translated by Sophie Wilkins (Woodbury, N.Y.: Barron's Educational Series, 1959);
The Maiden of Orleans: A Romantic Tragedy, translated by John T. Krumpelmann (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959; revised, 1962);
Don Carlos, Infante of Spain, translated by Passage (New York: Ungar, 1959);
Friedrich Schiller: An Anthology for Our Time, in New English Translation and the Original German. With an Account of His Life and Work by Frederick Ungar, translations by Passage, Jane Bannard Greene, and Alexander Gode von Aesch (New York: Ungar, 1959);
Mary Stuart; The Maid of Orleans: Two Historical Plays, translated by Passage (New York: Ungar, 1961);
The Bride of Messina; or, The Enemy Brothers: A Tragedy with Choruses; William Tell; Demetrius; or, The Blood Wedding in Moscow: A Fragment, translated by Passage (New York: Ungar, 1962);
Love and Intrigue; or, Louisa Miller, translated by Frederick Rolf (Great Neck, N.Y.: Barron's Educational Series, 1962);
Wilhelm Tell: A Verse Translation, translated by Gilbert J. Jordan (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1964);
On the Aesthetic Education of Man, in a Series of Letters, translated by Reginald Snell (New York: Ungar, 1965);
Naive and Sentimental Poetry, and On the Sublime: Two Essays, translated by Julius A. Elias (New York: Ungar, 1967);
On the Aesthetic Education of Man, in a Series of Letters, translated by Reginald Snell (New York: Ungar, 1965);
Naive and Sentimental Poetry, and On the Sublime: Two Essays, translated by Julius A. Elias (New York: Ungar, 1967);
On the Aestetic Education of Man, in a Series of Letters, edited and translated by Elizabeth M. Wilkinson and Leonard A. Willoughby (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968);
Wilhelm Tell, translated by John Prudhoe (Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press / New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970);
Intrigue and Love: A Bourgeois Tragedy, translated by Passage (New York: Ungar, 1971);
William Tell, translated by William F. Mainland (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1972);
*The Philosophy of Physiology,* translated by Kenneth Dewhurst and Nigel Reeves in their Friedrich Schiller: Medicine, Psychology, and Literature (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), pp. 149-167;
Love and Intrigue, translated and edited b;y Johanna Setzer and Elaine Gottesmann (Flushing, N.Y.: Setzer-Gottesmann, 1978);
The Robbers; Wallenstein, translated by F.J. Lamport (Harmondsworth, U.K. & New York: Penguin, 1979);
On the Naive and Sentimental in Literature, translated by Helen Wantanabe-O'Kelly ( Manchester, U.K.: Carcanet New Press. 1981);
Plays, edited by Walter Hinderer (New York: Continuum, 1983).
Wirtembergisches Repertorium der Literatur: Eine Vierteljahr-Schrift, 2 volumes, edited by Schiller (N.p., 1782);
Rheinische Thalia: Erstes Heft, edited by Schiller (Mannheim: Auf dasigem kaiserl. Freien R. Postamt & Schwan, 1785);
Thalia, 12 volumes, edited by Schiller (Leipzig: Goeschen, 1786-1791);
Geschichte der merkwuerdigsten Rebellionen und Verschwoerungen aus den mittleren und neuern Zeiten: Bearbeitet von verschiedenen Verfassern. Erster Band, edited by Schiller (Leipzig: Crusius, 1788); Euripides, Iphigenie in Aulis: Ein Trauerspiel in fuenf Aufzuegen. Aus dem Griechischen, translated by Schiller (Cologne: Langen, 1790);
Euripides, Iphigenie in Aulis: Ein Trauerspiel in fuenf Aufzuegen. Aus dem Griechischen, translated by Schiller (Cologne: Langen, 1790);
Allgemeine Sammlung historischer Memoires vom zwoelften Jahrhundert bis auf die neuesten Zeiten durch mehrere Verfasser uebersetzt, mit den noethigen Anmerkungen versehen, und jedesmal mit einer universalhistorischen Uebersicht begleitet, edited by Schiller, 7 volumes (Jena: Mauke, 1790-1792);
Geschichte des Malthesesordens nach Vertot von M.N. bearbeitet, 2 volumes, foreword by Schiller (Jena: Cuno, 1792-1793);
Merkwuerdige Rechtsfaelle als ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Menschheit: Nach dem franzoesischen Werk des Pitaval durch mehrere Verfasser ausgearbeitet und mit einer Vorrede begleitet, 4 volumes, edited by Schiller (Jena: Cuno, 1792-1795);
Die Horen: Eine Monatsschrift, 12 volumes, edited by Schiller (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1795-1797);
Musen-Almanach fuer das Jahr 1796, edited by Schiller (Neustrelitz: Michaelis, 1796);
Musen-Almanach fuer das Jahr 1797, edited by Schiller (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1797);
Musen-Almanach fuer das Jahr 1798, edited by Schiller (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1798);
Musen-Almanach fuer das Jahr 1799, edited by Schiller (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1799);
Musen-Almanach fuer das Jahr 1800, edited by Schiller (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1800);
William Shakespeare, Macbeth: Ein Trauerspiel, translated and adapted by Schiller (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1801);
Jean Racine, Phaedra: Trauerspiel, translated by Schiller (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1805);
Louis-Benoit Picard, Der Parasit oder Die Kunst sein Glueck zu machen: Ein Lustspiel nach dem Franzoesischen, adapted by Schiller (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1806);
Picard, Der Neffe als Onkel: Lustspiel in drey Aufzuegen. Aus dem Franzoesischen, translated by Schiller (Tuebingen: Cotta, 1807);
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Goethe's Egmont fuer die Buehne bearbeitet, adapted by Schiller (Stuttgart & Augsburg: Cotta, 1857).
Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe in den Jahren 1794 bis 1805, 4 volumes (Stuttgart & Tuebingen: Cotta, 1828-1829);
Correspondence of Schiller with Koerner, Comprising Sketches and Anecdotes of Goethe, the Schlegels, Wieland, and Other Contemporaries, 3 volumes, translated by Leonard Simpson (London: Bentley, 1849);
Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Cotta, edited by Wilhelm Vollmer (Stuttgart: Cotta, 1876);
Briefe: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, 7 volumes, edited by Fritz Jonas (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags- Anstalt, 1892-1896);
Ausgewaehlte Briefe, edited by Henry B. Garland (Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 1959);
Der Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe, edited by Paul Stapf (Berlin: Tempel, 1960);
Der Briefwechsel zwischen Friedrich Schiller und Wilhelm von Humboldt, 2 volumes, edited by Siegfried Seidel (Berlin; Aufbau, 1962);
Der Briefwechsel zwischen Schiller und Goethe, edited by Emil Staiger (Frankfurt am Main: Insel, 1966);
Briefe: In zwei Baenden, 2 volumes, edited by Karl Heinz Hahn (Berlin &Weimar: Aufbau, 1968);
Briefe des jungen Schiller (1776-1789), edited by Karl Poernbacher (Munich: Koesel, 1969);
Schillers Briefe, edited by Erwin Streitfeld (Koenigstein: Athenaeum, 1983).
More than half of Friedrich Schiller's papers are in the Schiller National-Museum
at Marbach am Neckar. The remainder are deposited in the Goethe-und-Schiller
Archiv, Weimar. A selection from his personal library and memorabilia is
on display at his house in Weimar, Schillerstrasse 12, which is now a museum.