Tuebingen - a brief history of the town

Since ca. 12,000 B.C. Mesollithic period: Earliest traces of prehistoric settlement in and around Tuebingen. A small number of artifacts on the Spitzberg.

Since ca. 4000 B.C. A few Neolithic finds (also on the Spitzberg.) Remnants of a settlement east of the Ammerhof containing pottery with banded decoration.

1800-800 B.C. Bronze Age, urnfield cultures. Discovery of a flangex axe below the Neckar dam. Cremation grave in the southern part of town east of the Steinlach. Other finds in the areas called Geigerle and Burgholz.

800-5th cent. B.C. Several field of burial mounds in what is now Tuebingen give evidence of settlement during the Hallstatt period: Hallstattstrasse, Waldhaeuser-Ost ("Roman graves"), Lustnau.

ca. A.D. 85 Erection of Neckar fortifications. At this time Rottenburg, one of the most important Roman towns, is beginning to develop. Tuebingen, in contrast, is the site of very few finds from Roman times. A Roman road (connecting Rottenburg and Koengen) ran along the left bank of the Ammer through wht is now the town.

6th/7th century The ending *ingen* indicates that Tuebingen is one of the Alemannic settlements whose name is derived from that of a person: Tuwo, Tubo, Tuo or Tugo. In the area of the present-day Muenzgasse there is an Alemannic cemetry with a linear arrangement of graves containing objects from the first half of the 7th century.

7th century Christianization: In a 7th century Alemannic cemetry in Derendingen (Bernhalde) gold leaf crosses have been unearthed.

1078 First mention Tuebingen in a document. King Heinrich IV lays siege to Hohentuebingen castle.

ca. 1081/87 The brothers Hugo and Heinrich begin calling themselves the counts of Tuebingen, a practive continued by their descendants. Tuebingen and its castle were in the middle of their sphere of influence, which at that time extended from the region around Nagold to the Swabian Alb and the Danube. In the following centuries the development of Tuebingen was closely connected with the rise and decline of this family of counts.

1146 In a document of King Konrad III Hugo of Tuebingen is referred to as count palatine. This high rank (deputy to the duke) underscores the prominence of the Tuebingen counts during the period of the Hohenstaufen emperors.

ca. 1150 In the Reichenbach monastery the first records are made of taxes to be paid in *Tuebinger Pfennige*. From now on there is increasing evidence of the use of this currency in the domain of the Tuebingen counts. It remained a means of payment until the end of the 13th century, when the heller began to replace it.

1180 A seal of Count Palatine Hugo shows the threependant flag of the court and five as armorial bearings. This later also became Tuebingen's coat of arms (red on a gold field). Today these arms, in other colors, are borne by numerous other towns (Herrenberg, Boeblingen, Feldkirch, Tettnang) as a sign of former possession by the counts of Tuebingen. They are also used by the Austrian state of Vorarlberg and the principality of Liechtenstein.

1191 First mention of Tuebingen merchants: devidence that a market exists.

1231 For the first time the term *civitas* (city, town) is used with reference to Tuebingen.

1280 A large fire destroys approximately 150 houses. Rapid reconstruction. The town attains roughly the size which it had up to the 19th century. At about this time work is completed on the Ammer canal, important for trades, fire fighting and sanitation.

1301 The counts palatine, whose welath has been declining rapidly in past generations, give their town in pledge to the Bebenhausen monastery, which they had previously founded. Although Count Palatine Gottfried is able to redeem the pledge in 1302, there are similar occurrences in the following decades.

1303 For the first time the town uses a seal that, instead of naming the governing count, confidently reads "Sigillum civium de Tuwingen" (seal of the citizens of Tuebingen).

1335 The citizens of Tuebingen assume debts of the counts palatine amounting to 3000 Pfund Heller. In return they receive all revenues of the counts palatine in Tuebingen for nine years and the right to elect their own mayor. On this occasion the first mention is made of Jews (whose residential district is preserved in Memory by the little street called Judengasse).

1342 The counts palatine sell the town of Tuebingen -or rather their privileges, rights of usufruct and sources of income -to Count Ulrich of Wuerttemberg.

1388 The town receives its charter.

ca. 1435 The town hall is built on the market place. Originally two story's high, it was frequently enlarged and renovated: third story in 1508, astronomical clock in 1511, crowning pediment in 1598. The pictures on the facade today are from the year 1876.

1470 Construction of the Collegiate Church begins. The work takes about 20 years. Outstanding features: stained glass windown in the chancel by Peter Hemmel of Andlau (ca. 1480), rood screen, late Gothic choir stalls (ca. 1490), elaborately decorated baptismal font (1497), late Gothic stone pulpit (1509), altar by Hans Schaeufelein, a pupil of Duerer (ca. 1520).

1477 Founding of the University by Count Eberhard the Bearded. This event had a lasting influence on the character of the town. In autumn 1477 some 300 students were registered. Already in its first decades the University was flourishing thanks to the presence of some of the Western world's foremost scholars: the theologians Biel and Summenhart, the humanists Vergenhans (Naukler) and Reuchlin, the astronomer and mathematician Stoeffler, the jurist Prenninger (Uranius) and the young Magister Melanchthon.

1482-1489 A stone bridge is built over the Neckar.

1495 The county of Wuerttemberg is raised by the Emperor to the status of an "indivisible" duchy. Tuebingen is the second residence, after Stuttgart.

1498 The first books are printed in Tuebingen. In the centuries to follow Tuebingen becomes an important publishing town.

1514 Treaty of Tuebingen. In return for help, especially from Tuebingen, in putting down an uprising in the duchy, the well-to-do classes of Wuerttemberg wring an agreement from the Duke that for the first time in continental Europe lists basic human rights. The treaty of Tuebingen is looked upon as the "Magna Carta" of Wuerttemberg. As late as the 19th century Ludwig Uhland made reference to it in the struggle for parliamentary democracy.

1519 Duke Ulrich is expelled. Wuerttemberg comes under Austrian rule.

1534 Wuerttemberg is reconquered by Duke Ulrich, who has Protestant beliefs. In Tuebingen the Reformation is introduced. There are problems especially with the University. Chancellor Ambrosius Widmann flees to Rottenburg, which is ruled by Austria. New professors are appointed, among them the famous botanist Leonhard Fuchs, after whom the plant genus Fuchsia was later named.

1537 The body of Duke Eberhard the Bearded (died 1496) is transferred to the chancel of the Collegiate Church in Tuebingen, where (until 1593) the Wuerttemberg princes are buried.

1547 In the former Augustian monastery a ducal institution for theological training is founded. Since then the Protestant Seminary, where some 150 theology students live and study, has played an important role along with the University in establishing Tuebingen's worldwide scholarly renown.

1567-1586 Primus Truber, reformer of the Slovenes and founder of the Slovene literary language, servies as pastor in Derendingen.

1577 Tuebingen University Chancellor Jakob Andreae brings opposing groups of Lutherans into agreement on a binding dogmatic *Formula of Concord*.

1588-1592 The Collegium illustre is built. For decades this academy is the most important training institution of the Protestant nobility.

1589 Johannes Kepler begins his studies at the Protestant Seminary. He remains in Tuebingen until 1594.

1606 The outermost portal of the castle nears completing (since 1594: strengthening of fortifications and addition of bastions).

1618-1648 In the 30 Years War the town and university suffer heavy losses. In 1634 the town is occupied by troops of the Holy Roman Empire and the castle is surrendered. Many people die of the plague. In 1638 Swedish troops occupy Tuebigen, followed later by Bavarian troops. In 1647 French troops blow up the south-east tower of the castle.

1623 Professor Wilhelm Schickhard invents the world's first mechanical calculating machine.

1688 Johannes Osiander saves the town from being sacked and burned by the French.

1694 Professor Rudolf Jakob Camerarius discovers the sexuality of plants.

1722 Tuebingen's Cotta-Verlag becomes printer for the court and chancellery. In 1787 the company is taken over by Johann Friedrich Cotta, who later publishes the German classics.

1777 The Old University Hall is renovated in the classicistic style.

1789 In a large fire 64 buildings north of the Collegiate Church are reduced to ashes (Neue Strasse).

1790/1791 Hegel, Hoelderlin and Schelling, allin the same room, are students in the Protestant Seminary.

1803 The students' residence hall is converted tinto the first hospital in Tuebingen.

1805 A botanical garden is laid out north of Lustnauer Tor.

1807 Hoelderlin, suffering from illness, is taken in by the Zimmer family. There he lives in the *tower* until his death in 1843.

1816 In the Weilheimer Kneiple the *Allgemeiner Tuebinger Burschenverein*, a patriotic student group, is established. From now until 1870 domestic political development in Wuerttemberg are marked by the conflict between the authority of the state and student fraternities striving for national unification.

1817 The Faculty of Catholic Theology is moved from Ellwangen to Tuebingen. A theological seminary is established in the building that previously housed the academy for the nobility (Wilhelmsstift).

1829-1831 The gates to the town are demolished along with large parts of the wall. The space requirements of the university and the growing population lead to expansion in the outlying areas along the Ammer and Neckar. An important manifestation of this developpment is the dedication of the New University Hall in 1845.

1831 In the rebellion known as the *Gogenaufstand* some 60 journeymen and windegrowers, singing Schiller's *Raeuberlied*, march through town to protest against arbitrary acts by the police. As was the case in the *Brotkrawall* (bread riot) of 1847 the rebellion is put down by student security guards.

1833 Ludwig Uhland resign his professorship.

1848/1849 Four Tuebingen citizens are delegates to the national assembly in the Frankfurt Paulskirche.

1861 Tuebingen is linked to the railway network.

1875 The population, which has been rising during the 19th century, reaches the 10,000 mark for the first time.

1885 Digging is completed for the Muehlstrasse, establishing a direct connection between the outlying parts of town along the Neckar and Ammer.

1891 The Tourism Board is founded, published of the *Tuebinger Blaetter* since 1898.

1904 For the first time women are admitted to the University.

1916 A bomb attack in the area of the Hirschgasse kills seven people.

1933 The National Socialist seize power. The University loses its independence; fraternities and clubs are dissolved.

1938 The Tuebingen synagogue in the Gartenstrasse, dedicated in 1882, is destroyed by men of the SA and SS in the night of November 9/10. This is a preliminary climax in the persecution of Jewish citizens. In 1941 and 1942 Jews who were unable to emigrate between 1933 and 1941 are taken away to concentration camps and murered. Only two survive. A memorial in the Jewish cemetry gives the names of 14 murdered Jews.

1939 Tuebingen's poppulation passes the 30,000 mark.

1945 Air raids take 36 lives. In the Second World War 1219 soldiers are killed and 505 missing in action. Tuebingen becomes the seat of the French governor-general. In the winter semester the University is the first in Germany to reopen.

1947-1952 Tuebingen is the seat of government of the Land of Wuerttemberg-Hohenzollern. The parliament meets in Bebenhausen.

1954 For the first time there are 5000 registered students. The Number reaches 10,000 in 1962, 15,000 in 1973 and 20,000 in 1980.

1957/60 Plans are made for new construction in the areas caled Wanne, Morgenstelle and Herbstenhof, and development is begun.

1959 A partnership is set up with the Swiss town of Monthey. Other partnerships follow: Aix-en-Provence (France) in 1960, Ann Arbor, Michigan (USA) in 1965, County of Durham (England) in 1969, Aigle (Switzerland) in 1973, Perugia (Italy) in 1985.

1968-1969 Student unrest.

1971 Buehl, Hagelloch, Hirschau, Kilchberg, Pfrondorf, Unterjesingen and Weilheim are incorporated into Tuebingen. Tuebingen now has more than 70,000 inhabitants. In 1974 Bebenhausen is incorporated.

1979 The tunnel under the Schlossberg is completed.

1981 Jews who formerly lived in Tuebingen are invited for a visit.

1988 The number of students reached 23 891 in the winter semester.

1990 The Russian town of Petrosawodsk (Karelia, USSR) and Tuebingen set up a partnership.

1991 With 25 554 the number of students reaches a new peak in the winter semester 1990/1991.